ARARIA अररिया ﺍﺭﺭﯼﺍ

~~~A showery district of north-eastern Bihar (India)~~~ www.ArariaToday.com

Archive for the ‘History’ Category

History of Araria – A detail research report

Posted by Sulabh on March 16, 2008

Araria has a very prestigious past though shrouded in midst of uncertainties. Some passages in the Mahabharata (Sabha Parva and Vana Parva) describing the conquest of Bhima in the eastern India furnish valuable information regarding the antiquity of the district.

 

Harsha's Empire - Great Buddhist Ruler in North India

In ancient times ruled by three important clans of Indian history Araria may be termed as a place of confluence of three entirely different cultures. The important tribe of Kiratas governed the northern side , while the eastern side was under the Pundras and area west of the river Kosi, at that time flowing somewhere near the present Araria, by Angas.

Angas are believed to be the earliest inhabitants of the district, mostly in the area west of the river Kosi  and these are among the easternmost tribes as described in the Atharva-Samhita known to the Aryans. Pundras are said to be the descendents of Saint Vishwamitra. Whereas the Kiratas  were among the few most important ruling  clans of that time. It is said that Raja Virata of Mahabharata had married a Kiranti woman who was the sister of Raja Kichaka , King of Kiratas.

Manu regards the Kiratas  as Kshatriyas. Mahadeva  was associated with Kiratas and Bhima meets the Kiratas in the east of Mithila, i.e. the present Araria district. He is credited with having defeated seven of the Kirata rulers. Kiratas are described in the Kirata-Parva and Vana-Parva of Mahabharata and they were considered so powerful that even the Lord Shiva is said to have taken the form of a Kirata.

During the Mauryan  period this area formed the part of the Mauryan Empire and according to Asokavadana the Emperor Asoka put to death many naked heretics of this area who had done despite to the Budhist religion.  In later times the district formed the part of the empire of Imperial Guptas.

In the sixth century A.D. the area south of the Himalayan pilgrim center of Varaha Kshetra, namely the Gupta kings Budhgupta and Devagupta gave Koti-varsha for the maintenance of the said pilgrim centre. Present district of Araria seems to be part of the Koti-varsa.

A brief account of this area and its people has been left by Huen-tsang, the famous Chinese traveler , who visited about 640 A.D. As he saw it had a flourishing population and was studded with tanks , hospices and flowering groves. The land was low and humid with abundant crops and genial climate.

According to the Ancient History of India by S.Beal the area west of the river Mahananda, i.e., the present Araria district was held by the Vrijis, a confederacy of tribes, who had come in from Nepal many centuries before.

At the beginning of 7th century the tract now included in the district seems to have been under Sasanka , the powerful king of Gauda. He was worshipper of Lord Shiva and hated Buddhism. He destroyed the Budhist convents and scattered the monks carrying his persecutions towards the Nepalese hills.

Harsha, the great Budhist ruler of 7th century defeated Sasanka.  But after the death of Harsha it seems likely that Araria became a part of Magadhan Empire under Aditya sena. From the 9th to 12th century it was under the Pala kings and on their decline became subject to the Senas of Bengal.

At the end of 12th century the Muslims under Bakhtiyar Khilji burst down upon Bengal shaking Bihar. Bakhtiar removed the seat of government to Lakhnauti (Gaur) and from this centre Ghiasuddin Iwaz (1211-26) extended the area of Muslim control over the whole country called Gaur as well as Bihar and his rule was acknowledged by the surrounding tracts including Tirhut.

But it seems due to an impenetrable network of rivers interspersed with large patches of jungle, the area of Muslim control could not extend to the northern portion of the erstwhile Purnea district, i.e., the present Araria district. Hence the present Araria district seems still to have been held by the hill tribes of Nepal.

It was not less than the 18th century that it could be gained from the northern tribes. In the year 1738,  the military governor of Purnea Nawab Saif Khan, son of an Afgan Amir, recovered the area north of the Jalalgarh fort up to Jogbani (i.e., the present Araria district) from the Rajput kings of Morung. Saif Khan appointed one Raja Nandlal as the administrator of the newly annexed area, who is credited to have built the temple of Lord Shiva at Madanpur.

Saif Khan after forcing the hill tribes back to the terai, cleared the jungles and brought the area under cultivation. He also defeated the Birnagar chief and subjugated his territory. Birnagar included the area west of river Kosi, presently the entire area under Raniganj and Bhargama blocks and some portion of Narpatganj.

In the year 1765 though the area came under the Dewani of East India Company, it was continued to be ruled by the Nawabs of Purnea till 1770. In the same year a British Supervisor, later to be known as District Magistrate and Collector  Mr. G.G.Ducarrel was posted and since then it has the same history as Purnea. But some special events related to the history of this area are worth mentioning.

When in 1738 Saif Khan annexed this area, i.e., the present Araria district, he gave it to the family of Purnea Raja, an old ruling family of this district. This family had its headquarters at Pahsara near Raniganj. They belonged to the Surgan Lauam family of Shrotriya Brahmins of Mithila. Maharaja Samar Singh was the founder of the family during the regime of Shah Jahan, the Mogul king of India. After Samar Singh his son Krishnadev became the ruler, followed by Vishwanath, Veernarayan, Narnarayan, Ramchandranarayan, and Indranarayan  all having the title of Maharaja. Indra died in 1784. After his death his wife Maharani Indrawati became the ruler. She ruled till her death in 1803. The contemporary British writers have described her as one of the most able rulers. The area under her administration included the purganas of Sultanpur, Sripur, Nathpur, Gorari, Katihar, Gondwara, Tira Khardah, Asja and others.

Indrawati had built a beautiful palace at Pahsara, which now stands in ruins and a number of temples. One of these temples devoted to Lord Shiva is still present in the Basaiti village of Raniganj block.

Kala Bhawan in Garhbanaili Purnia Bihar

Kala Bhawan in Garhbanaili Purnia Bihar

In the year 1751 Maharaja Ramchandra of the same family gave the purganas of Tira Khardah ( present Kursakata and Sikti  blocks) and Asja ( present Amour block of Purnea) to one Devanand, who distributed the two purganas between his two sons Parmanand alias Hajari getting Tira Khardah and Maniknanadan getting Asja. The present ex zemindars of Champanagar, Garhbanaili, Sultanganj and Srinagar ( all part of the old Banaili  Raj) are the descendents of Parmanand .

Navaratan Palace at Chanmpanagar


Maharani Indrawati died without child. After the death the succession  of the family became disputed. Indrawati had adopted Bhaiyajee Jha, son of her maternal uncle, as her successor. But the descendents of Maharaja Samar’s  second son Raja Bhagirath of Sauriya branch put  their claim over the large estate of Maharani and a quarrel issued.

In the year 1815 Raja Bhaiyajee Jha died having one son named Vijaygovinda,  who became the Raja. Vijaygovinda had two sons Kumar Vijay Gopal Singh and Kumar Bhav Gopal Singh . But both died without a son. The quarrel of the succession ruined the large estate of Indrawati and in 1820 the estate was purchased by Babu Pratap Singh, banker of Murshidabad and Babu Nakchhed Lal grandfather of Raja P.C.Lal of Purnea City. Pratap Singh  purchased entire Sultanpur and Sripur parganas. His descendents sold the pargana of Sultanpur to Alexander John Forbes.

A.J.Forbes was a military adventurer and had taken part in the adventures of Northwest India . He was also in the team of Commissioner Yule of Bhagalpur while fighting the rebels of 73rd native infantory.A.J.Forbes founded the Sultanpur estate and a number of indigo factories situated at different places in this district. The sub divisional town of Forbesganj is named after him.

Due to its proximity with the international boundary of Nepal the problems from across the borders always have been a special concern for the administrators of this district. In the time of British rule the Nepalese sardars used to the subjects of this area.

In 1770, Ducarrel the Supervisor or Collector at Purnea reported that Budhkaran who had been the Dewan of the deceased Raja Kamdat Singh of Morung was plundering the Company’s frontiers and putting the subjects to flight. Ducarrel’s suggestion was to extend the influence by rendering military assistance to Regonault who was opposing Budhkaran.

Depredations of the religious mendicants (Fakirs) was also one of the troubles from the north and above all it were the Dacoits who after committing crimes in this area took refuge in Morung. All these compelled the district administration to have a serious thought in regard of the problems from the north. Again in the year 1788 the collector of Purnea wrote to the board of revenue that the conquest of Morung by the Gorkhas in defiance of Mr. Hasting’s order, the assassination of the young Raja and their repeated ravages on our frontier, that nothing but a decisive step will be sufficient to restrain them within their bounds. According to O’Malley the aggression of the Nepalese continued during the next century. In 1808 the Gorkha Governor of Morung seized the whole zamindari of Bheemnagar. This flagrant encroachment could not be over looked and in June 1809 a detachment of troops was sent from Purnea to the frontiers. Climax to all these happening was the Indo Nepalese war of 1811 – 12 and after this war the present boundary between Araria (India) and Nepal was determined.

In the first war of independence of 1857 Araria also witnessed a few skirmishes between the mutineers and the commissioner Yule’s forces, which took place near Nathpur. In view of the 1857 episode and other developments regarding the law & order, in the year 1864 Araria was constituted as Sub-Division by merging the small divisions of Araria, Matiari, Dimia, parts of Haveli and Bahadurganj to provide better administration and ultimately it became a district in 1990.

Writers icon Source collected by Prof. Ashok Jha


Posted in History | Tagged: , | 24 Comments »

Modern History of Araria – Sulabh Jaiswal

Posted by Sulabh on March 16, 2008

During the British period, the area where one Mr. Forbes’s Bunglow was located was called “Residential Area”, which people called as R. Area. Over a period of time, R. Area acquired the pronunciation Arariya.

Land of Araria

Forbesganj is a sub-division of Araria district(before 1990 under Purnea district). City owned a name from person Mr. James Forbes who was officer of British India Raj. Pt. Ramdeni “Dwijdeni” is associated to Forbesgaj, he was a great freedom fighter, a leader who sacrificed till his last breath.

(More about Pandit Ramdeni Tiwari Dwijdeni see below)

James Forbes was born in London and went to Bombay in 1765 as a writer for the East India Company. He remained there until 1784. A good draughtsman and a keen observer, he filled 52,000 manuscript pages with notes on the natural history, archaeology, and religious and social life of India; these were later digested into his Oriental Memoirs, published between 1813 and 1815. (sorce:http://www.archives.mcgill.ca/resources/guide/vol2_3/gen13.htm#FORBES,%20JAMES)

Few historical portrays made by James Forbes.

Calicut coast by James forbes 1766


wedded banyan tree by James forbes 1774

The closing years of Warren Hasting’s Indian career saw the real birth of English literature and literary studies in India. Hicky’s Bengal Gazette, the first newspaper of modern India, was founded at Calcutta by James Augustus Hicky in 1780. It was a scurrilous production, but a sign of life. James Forbes left India in 1784, carrying with him the collected materials which he afterwards published as his Oriental Memoirs. The book remains a universally valued document of the culture, flora and fauna of India at the time. Forbes also published a work in 1810 which advocated the conversion of Hindus to Christianity. (source: http://www.bartleby.com/224/1001.html)

Araria’s contribution to the freedom struggle

The history of freedom struggle in the district of Araria is golden. From first war of independence 1857 to August Kranti 1942, on every spot sons of Araria have contributed significantly to free from the shackles of slavery to the nation. District residents are proud of their sons these.

According to the pages of history when in 1857 the year of revolution, Indian troops against English guns in Nathpur of Araria district faced with bravery. Indian troops cross the Kosi river at Chatra Gaddhi in Nepal to support Begum Hazrat Mahal of Avadh. They move through forest valley route. However, many of horses and stuffs lost during the strong current of Kosi, but Major Richardson who was stand at opposite side couldn’t do anything.

Pandit Ramdeni Tiwari Dwijdeni has been considered as initiator of  Freedom movement in the district. Army of fighters formed under Pt. Dwijdeni and Babu Basant Singh in the area, always troubled to the British. Ram Lal Mandal belongs from village Bhodhar same district who was one of the assistant of Gandhi ji. He participated in Dandi Yaatra(visit). His voice was very melodious and he used to speech Ramayana for Gandhiji.

Fighters were not deterred under English regime’s suppression. Fighters in the district’s army and former senior fighters emerged… Pt Ramadhar Dwivedi, Kanhaiya Lal Verma, Kamala Nanda Biswas, Dhanusdhari Chowdhury, Harilal Jha, Nageshwar Jha, Buddhinath Thakur, Suryanand Sah, Fnishwar Nath Renu, Bodhnarayan Singh, Ganesh Lal are few names. Freedom struggle were continued led by them. (Source support by Jagran news)

Role of Araria in Bollywood Hindi Cinema

Film: Teesri Kasam, Raj & Waheeda

In 1966, Famous film director Mr. Raj Kapoor(Showman of Hindi Cinema) worked in “Teesri Kasam” which is based on a story “Mare Gaye Gulfam” written by native novelist Sri Fanishwarnath Renu. Suitings of this film done here at the grass of  Araria’s villages. This one is a film set a golden  success in hindi cinema history. Directed by Basu Bhattacharya, produced and lyric by Shailendra, Screenplay written by Nabendu GhoshTeesri Kasam is an unconventional film that portrays the society of the rural India and simplicity of villagers.

This film was nominated for Grand Prix in 1967 Moscow International Film Festival.

Writers icon Compiled by Sulabh Jaiswal

Posted in History | Tagged: , , , | 1 Comment »